An Introduction to Atmospheric Physics, Second Edition by David G. Andrews

By David G. Andrews

A quantitative creation to the Earth's surroundings for intermediate-advanced undergraduate and graduate scholars, with an emphasis on underlying actual rules. This variation has been introduced thoroughly up to date, and now features a new bankruptcy at the physics of weather switch which builds upon fabric brought in previous chapters, giving the scholar a extensive knowing of a few of the actual techniques underlying this most vital and topical topic. unlike many different books on atmospheric technological know-how, the emphasis is at the underlying physics. Atmospheric functions are constructed commonly within the difficulties given on the finish of every bankruptcy. The e-book is a necessary source for all scholars of atmospheric physics as a part of an atmospheric technology, meteorology, physics, Earth technological know-how, planetary technology, or utilized arithmetic path.

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Consider first the potential energy EP of a vertical column of atmosphere, of unit horizontal cross-section, stretching from the ground (where z = z0 and p = p0 , say) to a great height (where z = ∞ and p = 0). Since the potential energy of a small slice, of thickness z, of this column is (ρ z)gz, the potential energy of the whole column is EP = ∞ ρgz dz. z0 4 Note that, for a compressible atmosphere, the static stability depends on the vertical increase of the potential temperature, not on the vertical decrease of the density, as might have been expected intuitively.

42 Atmospheric thermodynamics During the ascent of a radiosonde the temperature T is measured at a series of pressure levels p, and these can be plotted on the tephigram, to give the environment curve. Straight-line segments are drawn between each point, rather than a smooth curve. This gives a representation of a vertical column of atmosphere – but note that this may be slightly misleading, since the balloon takes some time to ascend and also blows some distance downwind as it does so. The dew point is also plotted at each pressure level, giving a separate curve.

13 The Köhler curve (solid) for the relative humidity RH = e/es over a spherical droplet of water containing solute, as a function of droplet radius a, at 5 ◦ C. The solute is taken to be 10−19 kg of NaCl. The Kelvin factor is given by the dotted curve and the Raoult factor is given by the dash-dotted curve. The thick horizontal dashed line and points A and B are discussed in the text. 13 gives an example of this function of radius a: this is called a Köhler curve. Also plotted are the Kelvin factor exp(A/a), which decreases with increasing a, and the Raoult factor φ = 1 − (B/a3 ), which increases with increasing a.

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