By F. Stuart Chapin, Mark W. Oswood, Keith van Cleve, Leslie A. Viereck, David L. Verbyla
The boreal woodland is the northern-most wooded area biome, whose traditional background is rooted within the impression of low temperature and high-latitude. Alaska's boreal woodland is now warming as speedily because the remainder of Earth, delivering an unparalleled examine how this cold-adapted, fire-prone wooded area adjusts to alter. This quantity synthesizes present realizing of the ecology of Alaska's boreal forests and describes their distinct gains within the context of circumpolar and worldwide styles. It tells how fireplace and weather contributed to the biome's present dynamics. As weather warms and permafrost (permanently frozen flooring) thaws, the boreal woodland might be at the cusp of an enormous switch in nation. The editors have amassed a notable set of participants to debate this rapid environmental and biotic transformation. Their chapters disguise the homes of the wooded area, the alterations it truly is present process, and the demanding situations those adjustments current to boreal wooded area managers. within the first part, the reader can soak up the geographic and historic context for figuring out the boreal woodland. The ebook then delves into the dynamics of plant and animal groups inhabiting this wooded area, and the biogeochemical procedures that hyperlink those organisms. within the final part the authors discover panorama phenomena that function at higher temporal and spatial scales and integrates the approaches defined in previous sections. a lot of the learn on which this booklet is predicated effects from the Bonanza Creek long term Ecological study software. here's a synthesis of the mammoth literature on Alaska's boreal woodland that are supposed to be available to expert ecologists, scholars, and the public.
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Additional info for Alaska's Changing Boreal Forest (The Long-Term Ecological Research Network Series)
Information presented in this chapter without citation is based on current United States Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) soil survey projects and Rieger et al. (1979). Soil-Forming Factors and Pedogenesis Soils develop through an interaction of four processes: (1) the addition of materials, such as leaf litter, to the soil, (2) transformation of these materials to new forms within the system, (3) vertical transfer up or down the soil profile, and (4) loss of materials from the system (Simonson 1959).
And D. O’Haire. 1988. Roadside Geology of Alaska. , Missoula, MT. , and P. McDowell. 1990. Interglacial deposits at Birch Creek, northeast interior Alaska. Quaternary Research 35:41–52. Gallant, A. , E. F. Binnian, J. M. Omernik, and M. B. Shasby. 1996. S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1567. Guthrie, R. D. 1990. Frozen Fauna of the Mammoth Steppe: The Story of Blue Babe. University of Chicago, Chicago, IL. , and J. Brigham-Grette. 1991. The last interglaciation in Alaska: Stratigraphy and paleoecology of potential sites.
The LTER Tanana River study sites provide a classic example of soil formation (Viereck et al. 1983). The factor that controls soil formation is time; the youngest soils formed in the most recent deposits show no horizonation. On the floodplains of the glacially fed Nenana and Tanana Rivers, most soils have a sandy texture and sparse vegetation. Soils on the second terrace generally have a finer texture with shrub vegetation. There is minimal horizon development except for a thin A horizon, where some organic matter is incorporated into the surface mineral horizon.