By U. S. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration
The complicated Avionics instruction manual is a brand new e-book designed to supply normal aviation clients with accomplished info on complex avionics apparatus on hand in technically complicated airplane. This guide introduces the pilot to flight operations in plane with the most recent built-in “glass cockpit” complicated avionics structures. This instruction manual is designed as a technical reference for pilots who function airplane with complex avionics structures. no matter if flying a standard plane that includes a worldwide positioning method (GPS) navigation receiver or a brand new plane with the newest built-in “glass cockpit” complicated avionics method, you need to locate this guide precious in getting all started. the coming of recent know-how to normal aviation plane has generated visible adjustments in 3 components: details, automation, and thoughts. Pilots now have an unparalleled volume of knowledge to be had at their fingertips. digital flight tools use leading edge strategies to figure out airplane angle, velocity, and altitude, providing a wealth of data in a single or extra built-in displays. a set of cockpit info platforms presents pilots with info approximately plane place, deliberate path, engine wellbeing and fitness and function, in addition to surrounding climate, site visitors, and terrain. complicated avionics platforms can immediately practice many initiatives that pilots and navigators formerly did through hand. for instance, a space navigation (RNAV) or flight administration process (FMS) unit accepts an inventory of issues that outline a flight course, and immediately plays many of the direction, distance, time, and gasoline calculations. as soon as en direction, the FMS or RNAV unit can consistently tune the placement of the airplane with recognize to the flight path, and demonstrate the direction, time, and distance last to every aspect alongside the deliberate course. An autopilot is in a position to instantly steerage the airplane alongside the path that has been entered within the FMS or RNAV procedure. complex avionics practice many services and change the navigator and pilot in so much strategies. although, with the potential for failure in any given method, the pilot has to be capable of practice the mandatory features within the occasion of an gear failure. Pilot skill to accomplish within the occasion of apparatus failure(s) ability last present and knowledgeable in achieving the handbook projects, protecting keep an eye on of the airplane manually (referring in simple terms to standby or backup instrumentation), and adhering to the air site visitors regulate (ATC) clearance acquired or asked. Pilots of recent complex avionics airplane needs to examine and perform backup strategies to take care of their abilities and data. danger administration ideas require the flight group to consistently have a backup or substitute plan, and/or break out course. complicated avionics airplane relieve pilots of a lot of the minute-to-minute tedium of daily flights, yet call for even more preliminary and recurrent education to preserve the abilities and data essential to reply appropriately to disasters and emergencies. The FMS or RNAV unit and autopilot provide the pilot various tools of plane operation. Pilots can practice the navigational projects themselves and manually regulate the plane, or decide to automate either one of those projects and imagine a managerial position because the platforms practice their tasks. equally, info platforms now on hand within the cockpit offer many innovations for acquiring information proper to the flight. complex avionics platforms current 3 very important studying demanding situations as you increase talent: 1. the best way to function complicated avionics structures; 2. Which complicated avionics structures to exploit and while; three. How complex avionics structures have an effect on the pilot and how the pilot flies
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Figure 3-16. Coupling the FMS to navigation instruments. Awareness: Mode Awareness Mode awareness refers to the pilot’s ability to keep track of how an advanced avionics cockpit system is configured. As shown in Figure 3-16, every advanced avionics system offers an annunciation of which mode is currently set—somewhere in the cockpit! There is no guarantee that you will notice these annunciations in a timely manner. The configuration of these systems must remain part of your mode situational awareness at all times.
Higher performance piston engines usually require descent scheduling to prevent engine shock cooling. Either the engines must be cooled gradually before descent, or power must be constant and considerable in the descent to prevent excessive cooling. In such instances, a much longer deceleration and gradual engine cooling must be planned to prevent powerplant damage. Additionally, the turbulence penetration or VA speeds should be considered with respect to weather conditions to avoid high speeds in turbulent conditions, which could result in overstressing the airframe.
Another technique for calculating descents is to use the formula shown in Figure 3-29. S. Terminal Procedures on page D-1. Working through the formula for the ECA VOR crossing restriction example, 8 minutes is needed to descend 8,000 feet at the planned descent rate of 1,000 fpm. At your planned descent speed of 180 knots, you will cover 3 NM per minute. Thus, in 8 minutes, you will cover 24 NM. Once again, you must start the descent 24 NM prior to ECA to meet the crossing restriction. Coordinating Calculations with Aeronautical Charts Regardless of which method is used, it is always a good idea to locate the top-of-descent point chosen on the aeronautical chart.