By Walter Geller, Martin Schultze, Bob Kleinmann, Christian Wolkersdorfer
This monograph offers a global standpoint on pit lakes in post-mining landscapes, together with the matter of geogenic acidification. a lot has been realized over the past decade via study and useful event on tips to mitigate or remediate the environmental difficulties of acidic pit lakes. within the first a part of the ebook, common medical matters are offered in 21 contributions from the fields of geo-environmental technology, water chemistry, lake physics, lake modeling, and at the odd organic gains that happen within the severe habitats of acidic pit lakes. one other bankruptcy presents an summary of tools presently used to remediate acidic pit lakes and deal with outflowing acidic water. the second one a part of the ebook is a set of nearby surveys of pit lake difficulties from 3 eu international locations and Australia, and case reports of assorted person consultant lakes. a last case learn presents an leading edge method of assessing the industrial worth of recent pit lakes and balancing the prices and merits, a beneficial device for choice makers.
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Additional info for Acidic Pit Lakes: The Legacy of Coal and Metal Surface Mines
These substances contribute to density and thus sustain the presence of meromixis. Accumulation continues until formation is balanced by exports out of the monimolimnion into the mixolimnion or groundwater space. Some of these dissolved substances are gases. In addition to passive transport by the water, gases can escape by forming bubbles, which move due to their own buoyancy. g. Halbwachs et al. 2004), which essentially is the sum of hydrostatic pressure and air pressure. Concentrations in the water and partial pressures are linked by the so-called Bunsen coefficient.
On its way, the groundwater transports the products of pyrite oxidation, mainly sulfate, iron, and acidity (see Sect. 2) or dissolves secondary minerals that might have formed, in particular in overburden dumps. g. Blodau 2006; Rolland et al. 2001; Wisotzky and Obermann 2001). Consequently, lake water chemistry has to be generalized with care and several exceptions might exist. Pit Lake Water Chemistry The first examples of strip mine pit lake water chemistry were from hard coal mining in the USA and were published by Campbell and Lind (1969), Campbell et al.
Boehrer et al. 2003, 2005). g. XN3 see map in Fig. 13), while even deeper depressions of the lake basin (XN5, XD5) were filled with mixolimnetic waters (Boehrer et al. 2003). Internal waves may be able to lift water from a greater depth across a sill (‘‘internal wave pumping’’, Van Senden and Imboden 1989). The excursion height and the amount of water that will cross a sill from a lower location are limited by the amplitude of internal waves and the number of events in a certain time period. When lakes are stratified, internal seiches can form.