# A Theory of Matter and Electricity by Birkhoff G.D.

By Birkhoff G.D.

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2-11) for C v L and C v H with the values of 3 and 30 V, respectively, the following is obtained. 7 k = 59 pF K (2-21) In addition to the oscillator shown in Fig. 2-8, there are three stages of buffering to prevent pulling of the oscillator frequency from large input signals feeding through the first mixer. The tuning range of the first local oscillator of a typical spectrum analyzer can approach two-to-one, as previously explained, which implies that the buffer amplifiers following the VCO must be broad band.

RX/RY. diode DX conducts and the gain increases further to a value of Notice that the thresholds which determine the breakpoints of the shaper amplifier are a function of the resistances R A through RE. To minimize the effect of these resistors, RA, RC, and R E are considerably greater than RB, RD, and RE, respectively. The resistances RA, RC, and R E are adjustable to set the slope of the shaper above the associated threshold. In spite of the restrictions placed on the resistor values, the variable resistances interact and it is necessary to have an adjustment procedure for setting the shaper.

5 V Low Frequency Features and Enhancements of Modern Spectrum Analysis 2R -WWR -ΛΛΛΛτ- LP? 50 V 1k +5 V I S Center Frequency LM336 ~ Figure 3-1 The sweep voltage and linearizer circuits for the first local oscillator of a spectrum analyzer. 2%, which would be better than the linearity of a varactortuned VCO with a linearizer circuit. A well-designed YIG oscillator could obtain a frequency accuracy of 0 . 1 % . A more elegant method would be to actually count the local oscillator frequency. This would require overcoming some significant hurdles.