By Yujiro Hayami, Masao Kikuchi
This targeted case research explores the dramatic monetary and social adjustments that the rice belt of Laguna Province has skilled within the final quarter-century. along with significant advances in rice know-how, expanding inhabitants strain, land reform courses, growing to be infrastructure, and concrete financial actions have speeded up the speed of switch. using a distinct info set outfitted from a number of surveys from 1966 to 1997 in a standard Laguna village, the authors illustrate a development of socioeconomic improvement shared via irrigated rice components all through Asia.
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This targeted case examine explores the dramatic financial and social adjustments that the rice belt of Laguna Province has skilled within the final quarter-century. along with significant advances in rice expertise, expanding inhabitants strain, land reform courses, becoming infrastructure, and concrete fiscal actions have sped up the speed of switch.
Additional resources for A Rice Village Saga: Three Decades of Green Revolution in the Philippines
In the settlement stage in particular, labour was scarce and landlords would have had little incentive to evict tenants. Usually, tenants living in the village and landlords in the nearby town were tied by paternalistic or patron– client relationships. Landlords tried (or, at least, gestured) to aid tenants’ subsistence crisis by advancing credits and giving gifts, and tenants tried to reciprocate by conscientious farm work and rent submission as well as through personal services. In the settlement stage, characterized by scarce labour and abundant land for new opening, rice farming typically was extensive.
Meanwhile, the Spaniards intermarried with local chiefs who established private property rights on communal lands as well as with Chinese traders who accumulated land through land-pawning arrangements. Over time these groups fused to form a landowning elite class. For example, a big landlord family that has dominated local business and politics in Pila for generations is said to be the offspring of an illegitimate connection between a Spanish priest and the daughter of a Chinese merchant. In this process of class formation, our study area is no exception in rural Philippines.
At the same time, land reform regulations resulted in an inactive land-rental market and narrowed the opportunity for landless agricultural labourers to become tenant farmers. During the three decades of our study, the penetration of urban economic activities became increasingly visible. Urban influences accelerated, especially after improvements in the highway system in the late 1970s, which reduced travel time from Pila to Manila from more than three hours to about two. Correspondingly, the share of villagers’ income from agricultural activities (including farm operation and hired farm work), in their total income decreased from about 90 per cent in the mid-1970s to less than 40 per cent in the mid-1990s.