# A blossoming development of splines by Stephen Mann

By Stephen Mann

During this lecture, we research Bézier and B-spline curves and surfaces, mathematical representations for free-form curves and surfaces which are universal in CAD platforms and are used to layout plane and autos, in addition to in modeling applications utilized by the pc animation undefined. Bézier/B-splines characterize polynomials and piecewise polynomials in a geometrical demeanour utilizing units of keep an eye on issues that outline the form of the outside. the first research software utilized in this lecture is blossoming, which supplies a sublime labeling of the keep watch over issues that enables us to investigate their homes geometrically. Blossoming is used to discover either Bézier and B-spline curves, and particularly to enquire continuity houses, switch of foundation algorithms, ahead differencing, B-spline knot multiplicity, and knot insertion algorithms. We additionally examine triangle diagrams (which are heavily concerning blossoming), direct manipulation of B-spline curves, NURBS curves, and triangular and tensor product surfaces.

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**A blossoming development of splines**

During this lecture, we examine Bézier and B-spline curves and surfaces, mathematical representations for free-form curves and surfaces which are universal in CAD platforms and are used to layout plane and cars, in addition to in modeling applications utilized by the pc animation undefined. Bézier/B-splines characterize polynomials and piecewise polynomials in a geometrical demeanour utilizing units of keep watch over issues that outline the form of the skin.

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1). Note that (1,c) follows from ¯ = f ∗ (u, ¯ . . , u) ¯ F(u) = F∗ (u) where u¯ = (u, 1). Observe that f ∗ is completely defined by ¯ . . , 0¯ , δ, . . , δ ) ∀i = 0, . . , n f ∗ (0, n−i i (the proof is similar to that for uniqueness of f in the multiaffine blossoming theorem). Now we can show uniqueness as follows: ¯ u, ¯ . . , u) ¯ F(u) = f ∗ (u, ¯ ¯ . . , u) ¯ = f ∗ (0 + uδ, u, ¯ ¯ . . , u) ¯ + u f ∗ (δ, u, ¯ . . , u) ¯ = f ∗ (0, u, .. n n i ¯ u f ∗ (0, . . , 0¯ , δ, . . , δ ) = i i=0 n−i n = i=0 i n i ¯ u g ∗ (0, .

9 for a cubic B-spline refined three times. 1 Implementations 1. Implement the Lane–Riesenfeld algorithm for rendering uniform B-splines. 5 B-SPLINE BASIS FUNCTIONS We know the B-spline control points are being blended with some polynomial blending functions. If all knots are of full multiplicity, then we have a piecewise B´ezier curve and the blending functions are the Bernstein polynomials. But what if the knots are not of full multiplicity? For simplicity, assume all knots have multiplicity one.

Two sets of control points are the B´ezier control points for the corresponding curve. The other six are not. Determine which two are the B´ezier points for the curve, and for the other six, give a reason that they are not B´ezier control points. 1, we saw triangle diagrams as a means of illustrating and analyzing de Casteljau’s algorithm. Another of the many uses for triangle diagrams is changing polynomial bases, for example, changing from the monomial representation to the Bernstein representation.